Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an enzyme associated with the disintegration of blood clots. It is a serine protease present in endothelial cells. With the help of serine protease, the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin is catalyzed. Serine protease is a major enzyme for clot disintegration.
tPA is also be produced by using recombinant technology techniques known as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). Specific rtPAs are tenecteplase, alteplase, and reteplase. These enzymes are used in clinical treatment of thrombotic stroke or embolic stroke. tPA is a drug that dissolves blood clots. It is a thrombolytic agent which can be administrated into the veins.
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Tissue plasminogen activator is the first and only drug approved by the FDA in 1996 for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Increasing incidences of stroke has boosted the tissue plasminogen activator market size. According to John Hopkins Medicines (JHM) in the U.S., around 795,000 people in the U.S. suffer from stroke per year, as reported in 2014. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability, worldwide, as reported in 2012. This is one of the major factors driving the tissue plasminogen activator market growth.
Increasing prevalence of stroke incidences in growing geriatric population is another major factor driving the market size. As per the Public Health England (PHE), around 38% of people suffering from strokes were aged 40 to 69 in 2018. Moreover, tissue plasminogen activator market revenue is witnessing further increase due to awareness about stroke and its symptoms. In 2015, the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stated that around 38% of people were able to recognize the major symptoms of stroke and were treated at the right time.
The side effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and fever, of the drug is one of the factors hindering tissue plasminogen activator market growth. Major side effects include hypertension, intracranial hemorrhage, systemic hemorrhage, angioedema, and others. tPA also causes complications of left ventricle. In 2011, the National Center for Biotechnology Information recorded around 2% to 5% of patients with acute ischemic stroke receive rtPA in the U.S. In 2015, CDC reported around 140,000 deaths due to unavailability and adverse effects of tPA in the U.S.
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Moreover, tissue plasminogen activator market growth can also be hampered by substitute product approvals by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For instance, after the approval of stent retriever by FDA, in 2012, the global tissue plasminogen activator market growth was affected, since tPA is not effective for major blood clots in comparison to the stent retriever thrombectomy.
Key players operating in the global tissue plasminogen activator market include Bayer AG, Abcam, Calbiochem, Merck & Company, Roche, Sekisui Diagnostics, Genentech, Sigma-Aldrich, Taj Pharmaceuticals, and Cadila Healthcare Ltd.
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